Perhaps I should begin by describing the range of symptoms most commonly associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). According to the NHS1, increased sensitivity to pain is typically experienced by sufferers of FMS, it can be so severe that even a light touch can be a problem. There is evidence2 that when fibromyalgia patients are exposed to pain-inducing stimuli, they demonstrate a stronger neurologic pain signature that a control group (people without fibromyalgia). However, the pain is not restricted just to the sense of touch, it can also be provoked by things a person might see, inhale or eat. People living with FMS might also experience great tiredness, problems sleeping, muscle stiffness and spasms, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), poor cognitive function and headaches. The syndrome is also frequently correlated with anxiety and depression. FMS can be a life-changing and debilitating condition, unfortunately, the causes are currently unknown, although abnormal levels of brain chemicals are thought to play an important role.
If the findings of a scientific study published last week3 are confirmed, FMS may have to be viewed in a totally new light. A team of scientists compared the gut microbiomes of 77 women with FMS to a control group. Significant differences were identified in the composition of the gut bacteria of these two groups. Through algorithmic analysis, the variance in the respective groups of microbiomes was found to be linked to FMS related issues (more than any other cause). So put simply, if the results translate to the wider population, people living with FMS are likely to have different gut bacteria than those without FMS. There is not any suggestion of causality here, that gut bacteria alone is the cause of fibromyalgia. However, we cannot avoid the speculative idea that changes to gut bacteria could mediate the symptoms experienced by FMS patients.
This is just one study, the results have to be replicated in order for provisional findings to be confirmed. But if demonstrated to be reliable, the evidence would signpost new ways to understand and possibly treat FMS. For example, can the composition of gut bacteria be changed away from that typically found in someone with FMS, to a profile resembling someone without FMS? If any such change led to a reduction or elimination of fibromyalgia symptoms, a new way to deal with this illness might be developed, perhaps linked to diet. This is particularly interesting when considered alongside studies that suggest chemicals found in everyday food such as bread may be able to disrupt the gut microbiome.
It will take a sustained period of research in scientific and clinical environments to confirm any of the speculative hypotheses discussed here. But at least two important issues emerge from this latest evidence. Firstly, that the gut-brain axis can be considered as a potential mediating factor is FMS, and secondly, that gut microbiome alteration may be correlated with non-visceral pain more generally. Therefore eating or not eating ‘healthily’ may be linked to an increasingly wide range of human health conditions.