Do probiotics work? Research from 2018 suggests that some probiotic strains might struggle to find a home in our gut, being quickly forced out by the established microbes.
Do probiotics work?
Research into the human microbiome is demonstrating that gut health is both complex and nuanced. Complex because of the sheer quality and quantity of microbes that we humans host. For example according to the Human Genome Project each of us has around 22,500 human genes, however it’s estimated that we also carry 100 times that number in microbial genes! Understanding the colonies of microbes (predominantly bacteria) inside our gut is further complicated because no two people have exactly the same gut flora. So therefore each of us has a unique bacterial ecosystem.
A research paper published in the journal Cell in September 2018 and highlighted by the BBC website, has made the claim that “Humans feature a person-specific gut mucosal colonization resistance to probiotics”. The study found that an 11-strain probiotic mix, administered for a month had almost no impact on the long term gut health of 25 participants. Either passing straight through the digestive tract or lingering for a short time before being forced out by the well established resident bacteria. Although provisional, the results are highly suggestive that the gut has a defence mechanism designed to protect itself from rapid colonization by new visitors. This is kind of intuitive, if any new bacteria that we ingested could quickly establish a foothold in our body then we would be much more vulnerable to harmful microbes.
Although this initial study hasn’t been replicated and is based on a relatively small number of people it suggests that probiotics might work best if they are tailored to each of us individually. That probiotics might offer the greatest benefit if they are designed to coexist with our unique resident populations. From a consumer’s point of view I am left thinking how might I be able to tell if the probiotics I consume are having a lasting effect without going down the road of expensive lab based testing? Hopefully further studies offering greater insight will follow.
Latest study links processed meat to increased risks of breast cancer.
Latest research confirms processed meat increases breast cancer risk
I generally have mixed feelings writing about lifestyle choices correlated with increased risks of cancer. I don’t think provoking people’s fear is usually beneficial and I don’t see my role as pushing people towards or away from things that I feel are important. Even as a vegetarian and now a non-strict vegan I have never found that scare tactics draw people into thinking about their own wellbeing or that of others. I do retain however a genuine sense of gratitude to the people that educated me about the relationship between diet, gut bacteria and mental and physical health. So if I highlight the latest research reviewing the dangers of eating processed meats it does reflect my own thoughts but I hope that it offers readers the opportunity to make an informed choice about what they eat.
An understanding of the health risks of eating animal products has been around for decades, and the scientific evidence of potential dangers linked to meat consumption increase week to week. The latest study to hit the media, reports that women who eat processed meat products such as bacon and sausages, have a 9% increased risk of breast cancer compared to women eating low levels of those products. This is not the first (nor the last I’ll bet) study that links meat with increased risks of developing cancer. But once you look into this issue further you realize that eating processed meat is a triple whammy! Firstly you have the statistically evidenced increased risk of breast cancer, secondly there are also greater risks of a wide range of other health problems. But also that while you’re eating potentially harmful animal products you are not consuming health supporting fresh fruit and vegetables.
As a society we know that the mass, unthinking consumption of animals and animal products isn’t helping us individually or benefiting the wider society. I’m an advocate of a healthy diet based primarily on plants, including fermented products. The indications are that even if you eat fresh fruit and vegetables alongside your processed meats, the benefits to your gut health are going to be limited. A final point to consider is that if we know that the type and quality of the food we eat affects our own health, what is the impact on us of the diet of the animals we consume? If animals are being reared in harsh unsanitary conditions, dependent on antibiotics for their survival and with poor quality fodder, should we be surprised if eating them increases our risks of poor health?
Evidence is mounting that there is a relationship between what we eat and dementia.
I trained as a cognitive scientist/neuroscientist originally because I wanted to know more about how people could lower their risks of developing dementia in general and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in particular. My interest in fermentation comes from exposure to research indicating that gut bacteria is correlated to a range of physical and mental health conditions. That if you have too many or two few of certain types of microbes within your digestive tract, then you are more likely to experience better or worse health.
Imagine my interest then when I receive details of research that stated,
“All the results suggest that AD may begin in the gut.”
This conclusion from Hu, Wang and Jin appeared in their 2016 study Alzheimer’s disease and gut microbiota. Clearly if the results stand up and can be replicated this will change much of what we know about AD, and how it might be treated. There is a growing body of research that has linked AD to diet, it is widely discussed in the vegan and vegetarian communities. But Hu, Wang and Jin take the current thinking further; that AD is not just linked to what we eat per se’ but the prebiotic and probiotic effects of our diet. This research suggests that future treatments for AD are likely to come in the form of dietary or microbiotial interventions. The investigation covers a wide range of evidence, the scientists also draw attention to known links between gastrointestinal diseases and reduced cognitive function as well as Parkinson’s Disease and abnormal levels of gut microbes. If you’re puzzled as to how the gut influences the brain, look into the gut- brain axis.
As a general rule I’m cautious about the findings of academic studies dealing with complex areas of human health like AD. There are such a wide range of factors able to influence wellbeing that to isolate and demonstrate causality is not a simple matter. There is also evidence linking a number of other behaviours (meditation, mindfulness) to reduced risks of neurodegeneration. So that if there is a correlation between both meditation and gut bacteria with lower risks of developing AD, we need to think about how it might work.
Anyone who has been around the meditation community for a while may have noticed a few things about regular meditators. They tend to be relatively calm and their diet and lifestyle tends to be a little different from the mainstream. For example I’ve observed that meditators appear to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol less than the general population. Anecdotally I have found more vegans and vegetarians in the meditation community than my non-meditating friends. You can see from these speculative ideas that the relationship between gut bacteria and AD could hold up even given the evidence linking meditation to lower risks of neurodegeneration.
Whilst this study in isolation does not prove that AD begins in the gut, it signposts further areas of potential research. We now need to look for more specific evidence and ‘joined up’ explanations. It seems that there has never been a better time to think about the benefits of bringing fermented food into your diet and protecting your gut health as far as possible.
Cabbage offers vital support in resistance to cancer. New research suggests new molecular evidence.
This blog reflects a growing interest in the benefits of consuming fermented food as a way of improving health and wellbeing. Cabbage is a popular vegetable in Europe, and it is one of the simplest things to start fermenting at home. Most parents would have urged their children to ‘eat up your greens’ at some point, but the real value of this advice is only just starting to emerge. Cabbage is part of the cruciferous family (brassicas) which includes lots of vegetables long associated with a healthy diet such as kale and broccoli (wasabi and horseradish too incidentally). Including them in your diet has long been recognised as a good idea. With a growing understanding of the link between lactic acid fermentation and good gut health, cabbage is being thought of as a superfood, able to increase protection against a wide range of health problems.
News published today on the BBC website adds yet another dimension to the benefits of eating cabbage. Scientists at the Francis Crick Institute have identified anti-cancer chemicals created in the process of digesting brassicas, including cabbages. It is supposed that a chemical (indole-3-carbinol) created when cabbage is broken down in the body, encourages the healthy renewal of the bowel lining. The cited research was not carried using fermented cabbage, however the long standing association between sauerkraut consumption and healthy bowels suggests to me that fermentation may have a favorable link with indole-3-carbinol production.
This research was carried out on mice so how it translates to humans is as yet uncertain (is the use of mice really necessary?). And as already mentioned this wasn’t a study on fermented cabbage.
Finally I just want to remind everyone of the importance of eating organically whenever possible. In a recent court case in the US, a man was awarded £226m in damages after claiming that his cancer was caused by a weedkiller that included the compound glyphosate. Despite being developed by a powerful chemical company (Monsanto), glyphosate has been attracting health concerns for some considerable time. France plans to ban it’s use within three years and at least one study by the UN argued it is probably carcinogenic in humans. While washing vegetables before consumption is always good practice, many chemicals used in agriculture like glyphosate are absorbed through foliage and roots. I’m uncertain of the extent to which glyphosate is present in the production of brassicas, but going organic is the only way to be sure.
Lentils appear to have an important role to play in human health and wellbeing., particularly obesity.
A simple message; loose weight and improve your health by eating lentils.
I’m not really an advocate of taking the pleasure out of eating food, people must choose to eat what they want, what they can afford and what suits their lifestyle. I am however disappointed with the lack of relevant health messages provided for consumers (it is in some regards why this blog was started). I think the humble lentil illustrates this point particularly well. Lentils (in general) have a number of qualities not widely known about or discussed in the mainstream, they are high in fibre, low in fat, good sources of protein, they are widely available, easy to grow and relatively inexpensive. It should also be mentioned that they are ingredients in some very popular dishes including soups, stews and daals. Lentils are good for us on so many levels that the government and the NHS should be funding extensive lentil related research and promotions. We also now know that lentils are an excellent prebiotic.
In the context of food, prebiotics are fibre able to pass through the digestive system to the large bowel (colon), where they feed and thus encourage the growth of helpful bacteria.
At around 1% fat, lentils are a useful addition to the food cupboards of people striving to maintain a healthy body weight. There is also evidence that their prebiotic effects may also offer support in the fight against obesity. There is a growing body of scientific research suggesting that less calories and more prebiotics are correlated with lower levels of obesity. Prebiotics are now known to increase the quality and quantity of gut bacteria in the colon and lead to the augmentation in the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA are linked to both increased efficiency in the use of calories and decreased obesity. Overall, the evidence suggests that eating lentils regularly is associated with reductions in levels of obesity. Lentils also tend to make you feel full, which has obvious implications for health and diet.
Another key issue to mention is that lentils are high in protein, up to 20g in a 100g serving. This is particular useful for vegans and vegetarians whom sometimes struggle to find enough protein in plant based food. As well as protein you can expect to receive significant proportions of wider nutritional needs in from lentils, such as around half your daily recommended intake of Thiamine (B1), VB6, Folate (B9), Iron, Phosphorus and Zinc.
It should be pointed out again that lentils are tasty and versatile, their consumption doesn’t have to be a chore. The take home point is that by eating lentils three or four times a week you might be able to significantly improve your health and wellbeing in a number of ways. Always interested in receiving and publishing your lentil recipes!
To fully explore the benefits of lentils would require a series of articles but if anyone is interested in the specific role lentils have in reducing obesity, take a look at the work by Dil Thavarajah , Pushparajah Thavarajah, Casey R. Johnson and Shiv Kumar here.
Although it’s often a subject shunned by polite society, what happens in your bowels is becoming increasingly an object of open discussion. The growth of interest in fermentation and gut bacteria is linked to an awareness of a relationship between improved health and how what we eat is processed in our gut. It goes without saying that we are what we eat. This maxim reflects the traditional understanding that the quality of the food we consume is a factor in our health. But science is increasingly demonstrating that the nutrients contained in our meals rely on a range of microbes to extract the maximum benefit from them.
While a discussion centered on healthy eating is normally something that can be sanitized, with the microbiome (the human microbial population), sooner or later human waste has to be discussed. What happens all through the intestinal tract including the colon has a key part to play in human health. Often the state of your own faecal matter (poo) can be a good indicator of what’s going on inside you. If you have a healthy diet and your food is being digested properly, the chances are you that you have a good quality and quantity of helpful bacteria in your system. There are a number of conditions that lead to the loss of a significant proportion of useful gut bacteria, these include the overuse of antibiotics.
Faecal Microbial Transplant (FMT) is a treatment used in a limited number of clinical cases, but its application demonstrates just how crucial gut bacteria is. As its name suggests, FMT is the transplanting of bacteria and yeasts from a person with a healthy digestive function into a person that has a significant lack of the necessary microbes. When one of the world’s best triathletes, Lesley Paterson contracted Lyme Disease, she turned to FMT as an alternative solution. Lyme Disease often leads to tiredness and low energy in those infected, and antibiotics are often prescribed as part of the treatment. Antibiotics have a number of possible side effects including massive reduction in gut bacteria, often further lowering the body’s natural resistance further. In some cases FMT is thought to offer an effective yet inexpensive solution with few negative side effects. Lesley Paterson’s story can be found on the BBC website.
Lose weight, boost immunity, clear colds, increase stomach acid, feel great – Apple cider vinegar.
Here in the county of Kent, the local fermentation community have been buzzing about apple cider vinegar for some time. Kent is a ‘garden county’, it has a long standing tradition of growing fruit, in particular apples, pears, cherries and soft fruits, not to mentions hops. In fact Brogdale houses one of the UK’s largest collection of apple trees with some 2,200 different varieties on one site.
We’ve used organic apple cider vinegar regularly over the last year, it’s got a number of culinary applications but in our home its main role is as a homely remedy. In the media you will come across a number of claims for its health benefits including, treatment of cold symptoms, regulation of blood sugar, support for a healthy gut, an immunity booster and even a mediator of weight loss. Although I have seen little evidence that apple cider vinegar directly causes consumers to shed pounds, its reputation as a tonic goes from strength to strength.
My own personal use of apple cider vinegar was linked to a misdiagnosis of acid reflux. It turned out that my stomach acid levels were too low not too high or escaping. To restore the balance I took 1 tablespoon of the vinegar diluted in a small amount of water before meals. It gradually did the trick, after about ten days all the signs of acid reflux had gone, however I still take a shot of the vinegar a couple of times a week. Incidentally I have been told that acid reflux can manifest similar symptoms to low levels of stomach acid, so the two are often confused. One way to tell the difference is to look for signs of undigested food in your stools. This is normally a good indicator that what you eat isn’t being broken down fully in the stomach and can be caused by low levels of stomach acid.
As a home fermenter I was particularly interested in accounts of how to make apple cider vinegar for myself. It is definitely a little more complicated than the products I’m currently working with (soya and orange kefir, red and white cabbage, ginger) but I’m keen to give it a try. In September we can normally expect the quality and quantity of local organic apples to be at their peak, that’s when I plan to start my first batch. I’m advised that it can take anything up to 12 weeks to create. If anyone out there has some experience I’d welcome more tips or first hand accounts.