People suffering from migraines tend to have particular profile of bacteria linked to nitrate processing.
I am keen not to overstate the potential of any individual scientific study. However this story highlights exciting news about a potential relationship between bacteria and migraines. In 2016 The Guardian featured a study that appeared to demonstrate a link between the efficient break down of nitrates in humans and the occurrence of migraines. As I understand the research, migraineurs (people that suffer from migraine) tend to have more nitrate reductase genes in both the mouth and in stool samples, than the wider population.
Nitrate reductase genes are responsible for processing nitrates in food and drinks, point being the greater their abundance the more efficient the nitrate processing. So getting more nitrates from food (compared to non migraineurs) may be linked to triggers for migraines. Obviously further research will be needed but the link between nitrates and headaches is not new. What this study is demonstrating is that the key might rest with the microorganisms in the mouth and gut.
Many migraine sufferers are aware of a relationship between certain foods and increased risks of attacks, through chocolate and wine for example. It is also known that certain drugs high in nitrates can provoke severe headaches. When broken down, nitrates lead to increased blood circulation in the cardio vascular system, this increase may be a key factor in migraines. The complexity of the human microbiome, particularly the gut-brain axis, makes demonstrating causality between food and health challenging. However this seems like a promising area of research. Controlling the intake of foods high in nitrates might be a short term solution. But given that fruit and vegetables are rich sources of nitrates, cutting down on them could present a range of risks and benefits. For more information visit the Migraine Action or Migraine Trust websites.
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There is a two way communication system between the gut and brain, this is one way that gut microbiota mediate our health.
The growing excitement over the role of gut bacteria is being fuelled, in part, by the realisation of the potential role of the gut – brain axis. The gut-brain axis is the hard wiring between the digestive tract and the brain. That is to say a direct communication link passing information between neural, hormonal and immune systems. A key point to make is that the communication is bi-directional, that means the brain talks to the gut and that the gut talks to the brain. Thus the microbiota (gut bacteria) and metaboloites (small molecules that are the product of metabolism) may be in reciprocal communication with different parts of the brain. While this has a direct and obvious impact on processes related to eating and digesting, there is rising evidence that our gut flora may be significant factors in physical and mental health.
The relationship between emotions and the digestive system is one of which we are intuitively aware. For example, feelings of love often manifest as ‘butterflies’ in the stomach. Engaging in team sports enables you to observe pre-match nerves in both yourself and others; the digestive system often plays an obvious role in how some people deal with tension! There is evidence that stress is a mediating component in gut microbiota, perhaps through increasing or decreasing the optimal conditions for certain types of bacteria to flourish.
New studies are suggesting that individual microbiota may be influential in functions as apparently disparate as memory and fear. It is not known what the basis of the relationship is, where the causality can be found. But that there is a correlation between what is in our gut and how we experience life in terms of mental and physical well being. The take home point is that many of the things we eat and drink are able to positively and negatively influence our health. By taking more interest in what goes into your stomach you might do yourself a power of good.