Fibre is an essential part of the human diet, strategic reviews indicate that consuming just 30g of fibre a day is correlated to reduced risk of colon cancer, type-2 diabetes, heart attacks and strokes.
For most of us, there is a simple thing we can do to improve our short and long-term health, eat more fibre! The role of fibre in regulating digestion has been understood by humans for hundreds of years. But the full benefits linked to fibre (also known as roughage) are only just starting to be understood. A recent study published in The Lancet1 analysed a wide range of research and found that a shortage of fibre in our diets is linked to greater risks of type-2 diabetes, bowel cancer, heart attacks and strokes. In addition, people that eat more fibre tend to have lower weight, lower blood pressure and reduced cholesterol levels. Amazingly the research suggested that consuming a mere 30g (1oz) of fibre a day was sufficient to deliver the full range of health benefits. To put this into some kind of perspective the 30g target can be reached by consuming four slices of brown bread, eating a handful of nuts and seeds in addition to the regulation five portions of fruit and veg a day. In essence, it is available to most of us with only a few small changes to our eating habits.
Fibre consumed through our diet can be divided into two types, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fibre is generally thought of as a prebiotic, which means it supports communities of helpful bacteria in the gut microbiome. Insoluble fibre does not dissolve in water and typically passes through the digestive system aiding bowel movements. Most fibre rich foods contain soluble and insoluble elements, today food science is more concerned with the total amount of fibre rather than the different forms (cellulose, pectins and beta glucans) we eat.
In summary; fibre is an essential part of the human diet, strategic reviews of the available evidence strongly suggest that consuming 30g of fibre a day is correlated to a reduced risk of colon cancer, type-2 diabetes, heart attacks and strokes. There is a growing body of evidence that fibre also plays an important role in maintaining helpful bacteria in the gut microbiome.
Cabbage offers vital support in resistance to cancer. New research suggests new molecular evidence.
This blog reflects a growing interest in the benefits of consuming fermented food as a way of improving health and wellbeing. Cabbage is a popular vegetable in Europe, and it is one of the simplest things to start fermenting at home. Most parents would have urged their children to ‘eat up your greens’ at some point, but the real value of this advice is only just starting to emerge. Cabbage is part of the cruciferous family (brassicas) which includes lots of vegetables long associated with a healthy diet such as kale and broccoli (wasabi and horseradish too incidentally). Including them in your diet has long been recognised as a good idea. With a growing understanding of the link between lactic acid fermentation and good gut health, cabbage is being thought of as a superfood, able to increase protection against a wide range of health problems.
News published today on the BBC website adds yet another dimension to the benefits of eating cabbage. Scientists at the Francis Crick Institute have identified anti-cancer chemicals created in the process of digesting brassicas, including cabbages. It is supposed that a chemical (indole-3-carbinol) created when cabbage is broken down in the body, encourages the healthy renewal of the bowel lining. The cited research was not carried using fermented cabbage, however the long standing association between sauerkraut consumption and healthy bowels suggests to me that fermentation may have a favorable link with indole-3-carbinol production.
This research was carried out on mice so how it translates to humans is as yet uncertain (is the use of mice really necessary?). And as already mentioned this wasn’t a study on fermented cabbage.
Finally I just want to remind everyone of the importance of eating organically whenever possible. In a recent court case in the US, a man was awarded £226m in damages after claiming that his cancer was caused by a weedkiller that included the compound glyphosate. Despite being developed by a powerful chemical company (Monsanto), glyphosate has been attracting health concerns for some considerable time. France plans to ban it’s use within three years and at least one study by the UN argued it is probably carcinogenic in humans. While washing vegetables before consumption is always good practice, many chemicals used in agriculture like glyphosate are absorbed through foliage and roots. I’m uncertain of the extent to which glyphosate is present in the production of brassicas, but going organic is the only way to be sure.
Lentils appear to have an important role to play in human health and wellbeing., particularly obesity.
A simple message; loose weight and improve your health by eating lentils.
I’m not really an advocate of taking the pleasure out of eating food, people must choose to eat what they want, what they can afford and what suits their lifestyle. I am however disappointed with the lack of relevant health messages provided for consumers (it is in some regards why this blog was started). I think the humble lentil illustrates this point particularly well. Lentils (in general) have a number of qualities not widely known about or discussed in the mainstream, they are high in fibre, low in fat, good sources of protein, they are widely available, easy to grow and relatively inexpensive. It should also be mentioned that they are ingredients in some very popular dishes including soups, stews and daals. Lentils are good for us on so many levels that the government and the NHS should be funding extensive lentil related research and promotions. We also now know that lentils are an excellent prebiotic.
In the context of food, prebiotics are fibre able to pass through the digestive system to the large bowel (colon), where they feed and thus encourage the growth of helpful bacteria.
At around 1% fat, lentils are a useful addition to the food cupboards of people striving to maintain a healthy body weight. There is also evidence that their prebiotic effects may also offer support in the fight against obesity. There is a growing body of scientific research suggesting that less calories and more prebiotics are correlated with lower levels of obesity. Prebiotics are now known to increase the quality and quantity of gut bacteria in the colon and lead to the augmentation in the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA are linked to both increased efficiency in the use of calories and decreased obesity. Overall, the evidence suggests that eating lentils regularly is associated with reductions in levels of obesity. Lentils also tend to make you feel full, which has obvious implications for health and diet.
Another key issue to mention is that lentils are high in protein, up to 20g in a 100g serving. This is particular useful for vegans and vegetarians whom sometimes struggle to find enough protein in plant based food. As well as protein you can expect to receive significant proportions of wider nutritional needs in from lentils, such as around half your daily recommended intake of Thiamine (B1), VB6, Folate (B9), Iron, Phosphorus and Zinc.
It should be pointed out again that lentils are tasty and versatile, their consumption doesn’t have to be a chore. The take home point is that by eating lentils three or four times a week you might be able to significantly improve your health and wellbeing in a number of ways. Always interested in receiving and publishing your lentil recipes!
To fully explore the benefits of lentils would require a series of articles but if anyone is interested in the specific role lentils have in reducing obesity, take a look at the work by Dil Thavarajah , Pushparajah Thavarajah, Casey R. Johnson and Shiv Kumar here.
Eat more raw, to get the most from prebiotics and probiotics consider how you prepare your food.
As a fermentation fan and a non-strict vegan, eggs are not normally part of my diet. However a recent scientific study that came out of China got me thinking more generally about food preparation. In the UK eggs have enjoyed a love-hate relationship with food experts and nutritionists. In 1988 Health Minister Edwina Currie announced that UK egg production was badly affected by salmonella. Although she lost her job, uncertainty over the benefit of eating eggs remained. There has also been a long standing disquiet over the suffering experienced by hens in the ‘industrialised’ production of eggs. Scientists still suggest that there may be a correlation between egg consumption and a number of health problems.
Conversely a new large scale study from China has suggested eggs may actually reduce risk of stroke and heart disease. The current advice from the NHS is that the cholesterol found in eggs is less of a health problem than the effect of saturated fat from the cooking process. Indicating that boiled or poached eggs may be significantly better for you than fried. This is not an endorsement of eggs as a health food per se’ but it draws attention to the strong relationship between health and food preparation. So what has this got to do with fermentation, prebiotics and probiotics?
One of the reasons we cook food for a sustained period is to destroy potentially harmful bacteria. It follows then that if food, such as sauerkraut is cooked at a high temperature for a sustained period much of the helpful bacteria will be removed. People starting to think about gut-bacteria from scratch (like us), might be surprised to know that commercially available products thought to be ‘probiotic’ may in fact be pasturised (heat treated) or made from pasturised ingredients.
This is one of the reasons why home fermentation is taking off in such a big way. There are certain challenges to delivering high quality, probiotically rich foods, safely and at a competitive price. So if you are purchasing probiotics check the labels to ensure things are as they appear, in particular watch out for the word ‘pasturised’. This is not so say that you can’t cook ‘live’ yogurt in a curry or sauerkraut in a pork casserole. It’s just you may be loosing a lot of the bacterial benefit.
A quick word about prebiotics. Prebiotic is a blanket term for any food ingredients likely to enhance the growth and development of beneficial bacteria, typically (but not limited to) those found in the large intestine. In order to arrive at the large intestine, food needs to be structurally able to resist breakdown in the stomach. Foodstuffs in this group can (loosely) be thought of as ‘dietary fiber’. If you do a little research in this area you’ll find that many of the most useful prebiotics are in fact raw vegetables. That is because cooking can limit the probiotic benefit effect of certain foods.
There are many valid reasons why people may wish to cook fresh fruit, vegetables and dairy products. The take home point is that if you don’t already, you might wish to take a look at how you prepare your food and the extent to which you are maximizing your support for beneficial gut microorganisms.