How to make kefir at home, ten helpful tips.
Having been experimenting with DIY kefir for a while, I thought it was time to share some of the key points we have discovered. This is not an exhaustive guide, follow this link for more general resources. The first thing to consider is that kefir is created by fermenting bacteria, therefore you need to follow reliable instructions. Our ten point guide contains tips that may help you on your way to a more positive experience.
- Decisions, decisions, decisions: Kefir can be made using powdered culture or live/dehydrated grains. You can also use a range of liquids to create kefir, milk, water, juice, coconut milk etc. There are subtle differences in how you approach these different processes. Think about it before you start.
- Cleanliness: Given that you are going to be growing bacteria you do not want to introduce anything that will pollute or taint your product. Make sure everything that comes into contact with the kefir is as clean as possible.
- Quality: I generally aim to use good quality milk/juice/water in order to have the best quality product.
- Water: Chlorinated water (tap or bottled) is generally felt to be unsympathetic to both the grains and the product so aim to use filtered water as far as possible in your fermentation operations. Don’t expose the grains to very hot or very cold water.
- Temperature: Typically milk takes around 20 – 24 hours to ferment into kefir at a room temperature of 22–25°C. If this sounds imprecise it reflects the range of factors linked to production. A golden rule is to try and avoid extremes of hot and cold.
- Observation: At the outset check the fermentation process regularly, you can’t expect consistency in kefir production unless you control all of the relevant factors. In a normal family kitchen having the oven on or windows open can change the time needed for optimum fermentation. I always check the product (visually) after 12 hours and thereafter at regular intervals.
- Avoid: Don’t use of anti-bacterial hand cleaners when working with fermented product.
- Manage the grains: Most of the advice says you can handle the grains but your hand should be spotless.
- Augmentation: Grain populations increase over time, you will have to remove grains every two weeks or so to keep the fermentation process stable.
- Cleanliness again: After every batch make sure that all containers, implements and any gauze or cheesecloth covers are as clean as possible.
Can fibre reduce your chances of contracting colon cancer?
I have been a fan of Dr Michael Greger for some considerable time. He excels at explaining important and often complex nutrition research in a way that most people can understand. Michael recently wrote about the benefits of fibre to health, its crucial role in feeding the ‘good’ gut bacteria. Put simply out gut bacteria converts fibre into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFAs deliver a range of benefits and are thought to reduce the chances of contracting colon cancer.
It’s not simply that SCFA promote gut health generally, fibre helps to maintain gut flora. A failure to eat enough fibre can lead to the starvation and decline of healthy bacteria. This typically allows for an imbalance (dysbiosis), where potentially harmful bacteria begin to dominate, perhaps leading to a range of inflammatory diseases and even colon cancer. Further links even suggest a connection to cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
A relative small amounts of fibre is needed to sustain healthy gut bacteria, in many cases just a handful of chickpeas every day. And yet there is evidence that many people in the USA and UK are failing to include sufficient fibre into their daily diet.
Home fermentation, have you tried the Kilner fermentation set?
Is a home fermentation kit necessary? For the occasional production of sauerkraut I’m not sure that special equipment is essential. Maggie has managed to keep us supplied with our fermented foods simply by using medium sized jam jars, and a range of normal kitchen utensils. The point she always stresses is that everything has to be clean. The fermentation vessel should be thought of as a bacterial incubator. If you incorporate harmful bacteria into the incubator it will inevitably grow quickly. You should throw any tainted product away , clean everything and start again. One of the many appealing aspects of home fermentation is the relatively low cost of fermenting produce. Consider that at current prices a liter of organic sauerkraut can be created for less than 50p (ten bob!).
I know that previous generation of home fermenters from Poland and Germany actually had a range of fermentation pots and tools that were accumulated through the course of married life (I don’t remember seeing any of these is the kitchen of my mother or grandmother). In particular ceramic pots that were dedicated fermentation vessels. They had necks wide enough that a small plate or large saucer could be accommodated within to keep the fermented product under the water level.
With the rising interest in home fermentation equipment has passed from specialist shops and online retailers into mainstream retail outlets. We purchased a Kilner fermentation kit at the weekend. Our primary motivation was to increase the volumes of our product. Not only has our own consumption increased but we are also sharing more with our own friends and family. It certainly seems that the public awareness of the benefits of fermentation is growing. The Kilner kit was fairly priced (£18) when compared to similar products and the fermenting jar was around the size we were looking for (3 liters). It all seems OK, we’ll report back when our first batch is ready (cabbage and carrot). We have no particular connection with Kilner, save that we use their 1liter fermentation jars already.
We’d be really interest in what other home fermenters use, and any equipment related tips would be most welcome. Feel free to leave any suggestions, comments or feedback in the box below.
What is gut health? How much does science really know. Where can you get more information from?
The interconnected relationship between microbes and humans is an increasing object of research and general public interest. Microbial communities are all around us, on the equipment you are using now to view this article, in your home, place of study or work. Crucially microbes have a significant presence on our skin and inside our bodies, particularly in the digestive tract, with the highest concentrations found in the colon. It should be pointed out the the consumption of fermented foods is linked to a positive, increased richness in gut flora.
Over the last decade advances in technology have led to improved understanding of the collection of bacteria, fungi and archaea (single cell microorganisms) that make up the human microbiome. More importantly there are ongoing attempts to understand the relationship between an individual’s microbiome and their health and wellbeing. In scientific terms the study of the human microbiome is in its infancy, but there are already a wide range of studies linking microbes living in the human gut to health and wellbeing. Elizabeth Bik has written a journal article outlining this general area of research and its challenges and opportunities. I would recommend The Hoops, Hopes, and Hypes of Human Microbiome Research to anyone wishing to get an overview.
The Bik article was published in 2016, and reflects one perspective (albeit a particularly well informed insight). A search on Google Scholar this morning (13th February 2018) for the term microbiome found over 20,000 entries; each entry likely to correspond to a journal article, book/book chapter, or other document. The point being, that this is a rapidly evolving area of enquiry. The types of human experience which appear to correlate with the microbiome is growing and includes; memory, obesity, depression, cancer, Crone’s disease, the immune system and much, much more. However as Elizabeth Bik points out in her article, the fact the certain microbes are correlated with a particular condition does not necessarily mean they cause it or are caused by it.
If you have a particular interest in gut health my advice is to find some good quality journalism as a starting point. If you need something more then go to the best scientific papers available. In my humble opinion, using one article or piece of research rarely builds a full enough picture. If you find out anything interesting feel free to email us or add it to the comments section below.
There is growing evidence that gut bacteria is linked to obesity. Preliminary experiments with mice appear to be supported by human studies.
Ongoing research into the role of the microbiome (bacteria in the gut) in human wellbeing is at a very early stage. But the frequency of media headlines linking gut bacteria to health is growing. As with all areas of science, claims which have not been verified in clinical trials and subsequently replicated must be treated with caution. Nevertheless the evidence of a relationship between gut microbiome diversity and obesity has been repeatedly demonstrated in mice.
The microbiome is a term used to describe all of the genetic material of a microbiota, the entire range of microorganisms present in a particular context, in this case the human gut.
There have been a number of studies which show that obese mice tend to have fewer different types of gut bacteria than thin mice. The thinking is that a greater range of gut bacteria is likely to positively influence the way that the digestive system breaks down food. Having more (types of) bacteria is linked to efficient processing of what we eat, with the results of a tendency not to be obese. Recent research reported in The Independent looked at the weight gained by 1,632 female twins over nine years. The study calculated that only 41% of the weight increase could be explained by genetic factors.
On closer inspection it was estimated that becoming slimmer or maintaining the same weight was connected to the consumption of dietary fibre (typically found in whole grains, fruit and vegetables). The study also discovered that the women who had gained weight, had a lower diversity of gut bacteria. These findings were in line with similar studies with mice. Although not yet conclusive the overall evidence linking the shape of our body and the composition of our microbiome is growing.