Autism correlated with gut health

Autism correlated with guthealth. More evidence links gut bacteria to developmental disorders.

Our gut bacteria may play a role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
Our gut bacteria may play a role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

There is mounting evidence of a relationship between the microbiome and autism. Taken in isolation one study that challenges conventional thinking about any condition such as autism should be treated with suspicion. However, increasing scientific research into gut health and wellbeing is starting to shift the thinking about human health in a completely new direction.

A number of studies have observed abnormal gut microbiota correlated with a range of conditions including autism. However the issue of causality is still uncertain. So what does this mean?  In short that the bacteria in the human gut demonstrates a different profile in people with autism than people without autism. The scientific term for a balance and blend of gut bacteria that falls outside of the ‘normal’ range is known as dysbiosis. Exactly how gut dysbiosis is linked to autism is still far from clear. There is the possibility that dysbiosis is the effect of a condition rather than the cause of it, although we know there is a two-way relationship between the gut and the brain through the gut-brain access.

A recent overview of research into gut microbiota and dysbiosis in autism found that gut microbiota probably has a mediating role in ASD. By logical deduction, we can be confident that diet at some level is likely to be connected to the development of ASD or the maintenance of its symptoms.

So while we are waiting for science to deliver ‘conclusive’ findings that will help us understand more about autism, what shall we do?

Clearly, we should attempt to establish a healthy gut. The list of health problems linked to dysbiosis grows almost every day, they currently include a range of cancers, heart disease and even dementia! Amongst the simple measures every person can engage with immediately to keep a healthy gut, are to avoid processed meats and eat more fermented foods.

It’s far too early to draw firm conclusions about diet and complex developmental conditions such as ASD. But a picture is starting to emerge were just as diet influences gut health, gut health influences physical and mental wellbeing, there was never a greater case for embracing the maxim ‘we are what we eat’.

Fibre and your health; time for a rethink

Fibre is an essential part of the human diet, strategic reviews indicate that consuming just 30g of fibre a day is correlated to reduced risk of colon cancer, type-2 diabetes, heart attacks and strokes.

Fibre and your health
Fibre and your health

For most of us there is a simple thing we can do to improve our short and long-term health, eat more fibre! The role of fibre in regulating digestion has been understood by humans for hundreds of years. But the full benefits linked to fibre (also known as roughage) are only just starting to be understood. A recent study published in The Lancet1 analysed a wide range of research and found that a shortage of fibre in our diets is linked to greater risks of type-2 diabetes, bowel cancer, heart attacks and strokes. In addition people that eat more fibre tend to have lower weight, lower blood pressure and reduced cholesterol levels. Amazingly the research suggested that consuming a mere 30g (1oz) of fibre a day was sufficient to deliver the full range of health benefits. To put this into some kind of perspective the 30g target can be reached by consuming four slices of brown bread, eating a handful of nuts and seeds in addition to the regulation five portions of fruit and veg a day. In essence it is available to most of us with only a few small changes to our eating habits.

pile of sliced wheat breads

Fibre consumed through our diet can be divided into two types, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber is generally though of as a prebiotic, which means it supports communities of helpful bacteria in the gut microbiome. Insoluble fibre does not dissolve in water and typically passes through the digestive system aiding bowel movements. Most fibre rich foods contain soluble and insoluble elements, today food science is more concerned with the total amount of fibre rather than the different forms (cellulose, pectins and beta glucans) we eat.

In summary; fibre is an essential part of the human diet, strategic reviews of the available evidence strongly suggest that consuming 30g of fibre a day is correlated to reduced risk of colon cancer, type-2 diabetes, heart attacks and strokes. There is a growing body of evidence that fibre also plays an important role in maintaining helpful bacteria in the gut microbiome.

Foods rich in fibre2 include;

  • Wholegrains (wholegrain breakfast cereals, wholewheat pasta, oats, barley,  rye and wholegrain bread).
  • Fibre rich fruits (berries, apple, pear, melon and orange).
  • Fibre rich vegetables (broccoli, carrot and sweetcorn).
  • A wide range of pulses, peas and beans.
  • Nuts and seeds.
  • Root crops cooked with skins on (potatoes, sweet potatoes).

 

Notes

1www.thelancet.com

2www.nutrition.org.uk

Header photo by Ella Olsson on Pexels.com, bread photo by Marianna OLE on Pexels.com.

Blueberries, polyphenols and gut health

Blueberries appear to offer a wide range of benefits including supporting guthealth.

Blueberries polyphenols and gut health
Polyphenol rich blueberries aid gut health

Being a meditation scientist I often write about lifestyle choices that support augmented brain function and structure. As a general rule food that is associated with a healthy brain also positively correlates with improved general health and well-being. So having just blogged an article explaining how blueberry consumption can reduce effective brain age by up to 2.5 years I looked up potential relationships between blueberries and the gut microbiome.

Berries in general and blueberries in particular are good natural sources of polyphenols and therefore limit the effect of oxidisation, a cause of cell damage. But we also know that polyphenols lead to a healthier gut through the creation of metabolites which in turn support communities of beneficial bacteria.

As we age, chronic diseases become more likely1, when low grade inflammation is an underlying factor scientists refer to this as the “inflammaging” syndrome. In gut health inflammaging is linked to a weakening of a number of internal systems (homeostasis) including a reduction in the efficiency of the immune barrier. In experiments with mice it was suggested that polyphenols reduced intestinal inflammation and led to the modulation of the gut microbiota. The evidence is that berries are rich sources of polyphenols and so are likely to have a positive impact upon chronic diseases linked to gut health, particularly in older populations.

According to the Blueberry Council the benefits of blueberries extend beyond inflammaging.

  • Experiments have demonstrated an improved insulin response in blueberry-fed mice when compared to controls.
  • Further evidence for augmented cognitive function in animals and humans has been found.
  • There are also preliminary studies supporting a relationship between blueberry consumption and reduced growth in cancerous cells.

assorted sliced fruits in white ceramic bowl

Polyphenol is found in a wide range of fruit and vegetables as well as nuts and pulses. Here are some of the top 100 food sources of polyphenol according to a study published in 20102.

  • Cloves – 15,188mg per 100g serving
  • Cocoa powder – 3,448mg per 100g serving
  • Lowbush blueberry – 836mg per 100g serving
  • Black olive – 569mg per 100g serving
  • Plum – 377mg per 100g serving
  • Soy, tempeh – 148mg per 100g serving
  • Apple – 136mg per 100g serving
  • Spinach – 119mg per 100g serving
  • Pumpkin – 60mg per 100g serving
  • Soy milk – 18mg per 100ml serving

 

Notes

https://academic.oup.com

2 https://www.researchgate.net

Header Photo by Olga on Pexels.com, fruit photo by Trang Doan on Pexels.com.

Health risks of bacon hits the headlines

Health risks of bacon and other processed meats hit the headlines.

Bacon and poor health
The relationship between bacon and poor health makes the news

I’ve been reading about the potential health risks linked to meat consumption for decades1. The evidence of a relationship between processed meat products in particular and serious illnesses including cancer has been established for many years. So recent and widespread calls to rid bacon and ham of nitrates comes as no surprise. In fact in some senses it feels like a long overdue and underwhelming response.

raw meat on brown wooden surface

Needless to say The British Meat Processors Association stand by their bacon and maintain that nitrates are ‘authorised additives’. However the dispute over the risks and benefits of nitrates in processed meat begs the question, why don’t we do away with processed meats altogether? Meats are processed to modify the taste or extend the shelf life, products include bacon, sausages, hot dogs, salami, corned beef, beef jerky, ham as well as canned meats. Until we know more about the relative health risks of the different products it might be advisable to avoid them all.

 

Notes

1 Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1990.

Header photo by Angele J on Pexels.com, meat photo by rawpixel.com on Pexels.com.

Gut health: BBC radio documentary

The importance of the microbiome to human health is just starting to emerge, but our attitude to gut health hasn’t always been this enlightened.

Learn more about gut health
Gut health, a BBC review in five episodes

Just a heads up for anyone interested in learning more about the changing relationship between humans and gut health. A short series The Gut Instinct: A Social History has been broadcast on BBC Radio 4 this week over five 15 minute episodes. At the time of writing the transmissions were still available on the BBC iPlayer here.

The concept was to explore how humans related to digestive processes and gut health across culture and time. There’s a lot of general information linked to the microbiome, some directly relevant to us today. The programme was written and presented by restaurant owner Tim Hayward and it seeks to offer an account relevant to a general audience, setting out major historical landmarks as well as important contemporary issues. Unusually for a British show we actually hear adults talking about bowel movements and human waste in a practical and informative manner. The five episode titles reflect the general content of the series (Gut Culture, A Window into the Gut, The Language of the Gut, The Disease of Civilisation and The Gut Speaks). Don’t expect much detailed science but I’d imagine anyone who tunes in to pick up some new morsels of gut knowledge, total listening time is just 75 minutes.

 

Notes

Header photo by Buenosia Carol on Pexels.com

Menopause and health, diet is crucial

Diet is becoming a crucial factor in maintaining estrogen levels in post menopausal women.

Menopause and health, diet is crucial
Post menopause health is linked to gut health

Menopause and health, diet is crucial

The number of women living with the menopause is growing, therefore more people are at risks from illnesses connected with life after the menopause. A recent study investigating estrogen levels and gut health in post menopausal females found a relationship between microbial diversity  (the different types of microbes) and circulating estrogen. The implications of this are huge because low estrogen is linked to a wide range of health issues. Typically the diversity of microbes in the human digestive system (gut microbiota) can be altered with changes to diet, for example a greater emphasis on plant based foods, and the use of probiotics and prebiotics. This suggests that women’s health generally, including fertility might be improved simply through alterations to diet.

One of the most important factors in the amount of circulating estrogens in women is the gut microbiome (the population of microbes in our gut). The greater the diversity of gut bacteria generally speaking the higher the levels of estrogen will be. Low levels of estrogen are associated with a wide range of illnesses in older women such as: obesity, cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, heart disease and even cognitive function. It is suggested that bariatric surgery, fmt and medication (metformin) can alter the gut microbiome and therefore limit estrogen-driven disease. But the evidence suggests that changes to diet alone may be able to have a significant impact on estrogen levels

I’d like to highlight four of the issues raised by the research:

  • There appears to be a strong relationship between what women eat and levels of circulating estrogen.
  • Different treatments exist to increase estrogen, but dietary changes alone might deliver significant benefits.
  • The benefits of increased circulating estrogen through improved diet may be available to women of any age and might be linked to improved fertility.
  • This study reflects a general pattern in health seen in human microbiome research, that a healthy gut is linked to reduced risks of developing a wide range of illnesses.

 

Notes

Photo by Valeria Boltneva on Pexels.com

Breast cancer and your diet

Latest study links processed meat to increased risks of breast cancer.

Your diet and breast cancer
Breast cancer and your diet

Latest research confirms processed meat increases breast cancer risk

I generally have mixed feelings writing about lifestyle choices correlated with increased risks of cancer. I don’t think provoking people’s fear is usually beneficial and I don’t see my role as pushing people towards or away from things that I feel are important. Even as a vegetarian and now a non-strict vegan I have never found that scare tactics draw people into thinking about their own wellbeing or that of others. I do retain however a genuine sense of gratitude to the people that educated me about the relationship between diet, gut bacteria and mental and physical health. So if I highlight the latest research reviewing the dangers of eating processed meats it does reflect my own thoughts but I hope that it offers readers the opportunity to make an informed choice about what they eat.

An understanding of the health risks of eating animal products has been around for decades, and the scientific evidence of potential dangers linked to meat consumption increase week to week. The latest study to hit the media, reports that women who eat processed meat products such as bacon and sausages, have a 9% increased risk of breast cancer compared to women eating low levels of those products. This is not the first (nor the last I’ll bet) study that links meat with increased risks of developing cancer. But once you look into this issue further you realize that eating processed meat is a triple whammy! Firstly you have the statistically evidenced increased risk of breast cancer, secondly there are also greater risks of a wide range of other health problems. But also that while you’re eating potentially harmful animal products you are not consuming health supporting fresh fruit and vegetables.

As a society we know that the mass, unthinking consumption of animals and animal products isn’t helping us individually or benefiting the wider society. I’m an advocate of a healthy diet based primarily on plants, including fermented products. The indications are that even if you eat fresh fruit and vegetables alongside your processed meats, the benefits to your gut health are going to be limited. A final point to consider is that if we know that the type and quality of the food we eat affects our own health, what is the impact on us of the diet of the animals we consume? If animals are being reared in harsh unsanitary conditions, dependent on antibiotics for their survival and with poor quality fodder, should we be surprised if eating them increases our risks of poor health?